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Definitions on the web:
Debt collection is a deliberate attempt by a business to collect an obligation that has become past due. In normal transactions between two businesses, an invoice is rendered and payment is due within 30 days—unless, by special arrangement, a more generous schedule of payments has been agreed upon.
Litigation Law covers the process of bringing and pursuing a lawsuit, and encompasses the entire procedure. A lawsuit is a case or controversy authorized by law, to be decided in a court of justice, brought by one person or entity against another person or entity for the purpose of enforcing a right or redressing a grievance.
A collection agency is a business that pursues payments of debts owed by individuals or businesses. Most collection agencies operate as agents of creditors and collect debts for a fee or percentage of the total amount owed.
There are many types of collection agencies. First-party agencies are often times subsidiaries of the original company the debt is owed to. Third-party agencies are separate companies contracted by a company to collect debts on their behalf for a fee. Debt buyers purchase the debt at a small fraction of its value, then attempt to collect it. The practices of collection agencies can be very aggressive; each country has its own rules and regulations regarding them.
The person who owes the bill or debt is the debtor. Debtors may fail to pay (default) for various reasons: because of a lack of financial planning or over commitment on their part; due to an unforeseen eventuality such as the loss of a job or health problems; dispute or disagreement over the debt or what is being billed for; or dishonesty. The debtor may be either a person or an entity such as a company. Collection of debts from individual people is subject to much more restrictive rules than enforcement against a business.